By Paul R. Gray
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Extra info for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
19, there are significant resistances rb and r, in series with the base and collector contacts, respectively. There is also a resistance re, of several ohms in series with the emitter lead that can become important at high bias currents. 15 This occurs at high collector currents where the dc base current produces a lateral voltage drop in the base that tends to forward bias the base-emitter junction preferentially around the edges of the emitter. Thus the transistor action tends to occur along the emitter periphery rather than under the emitter itself, and the distance from the base contact to the active base region is reduced.
8. An inverse current gain PR is also defined and has typical values 1 to 5. This is the current gain of the transistor when operated inverted and is much lower than PF because the device geometry and doping densities are designed to maximize PF. The inverse-active region of device operation occurs for VCE negative in an n p n transistor and is shown in Fig. 12. In order to display these characteristics adequately in the same figure as the forward-active region, the negative voltage and current scales have been expanded.
Base widening still occurs in this configuration as VcB is increased, but unlike the common-emitter connection, it produces little change in Ic. This is because IEis now fixed instead of VBEor IB, and in Fig. 9, this means the slope of the minority-carrier concentration at the emitter edge of the base is fixed. Thus the collector current remains almost unchanged. Now consider the effect of avalanche breakdown on the common-emitter characteristics of the device. Typical characteristics are shown in Fig.
Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits by Paul R. Gray