By Ian Fletcher
This can be the tale of the Waterloo crusade from the viewpoint of the British military. Uniquely, it starts with the break-up of Wellington's military on the finish of the Peninsular conflict, keeps with the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, after which examines the scuffling with that undefined, as Wellington's military driven directly to Paris
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Additional info for A Desperate Business: Wellington, the British Army and the Waterloo Campaign
This was not renewed for 2000–6, but substantial compensatory transitional aid was awarded. Institutional links have grown, with the European Commission holding a permanent office in Belfast and the Northern Ireland executive operating a Brussels office. The implementation of EU programmes will become increasingly a matter for a sustained devolved Northern Ireland executive. EU funding for Northern Ireland is provided via the Community Support Framework. This is based around two programmes: the Programme for Building Sustainable Prosperity, which accounts for two-thirds of funding, and the Programme for Peace and Reconciliation, which provides the 36 THEORIES OF THE CONFLICTXX remaining one-third.
The involvement of the United States increased markedly in economic terms after the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement, through extensive reconstruction aid, which enjoyed high visibility among the population of Northern Ireland (Irvin and Byrne 2002). From 1992 until 2000, the US administration took a more pro-active political brokerage role under the Clinton presidency. This shift was facilitated by the triumph of the National Security Council over the more cautious and 34 THEORIES OF THE CONFLICTXX pro-British State Department in a ‘turf war’ within the administration (Arthur 2000: 158–9).
Initial Success: PIRA Gains, 1970–2 The initial tasks of the PIRA in 1970 were to restore the reputation of the IRA and to sour relations between the local population and the ‘colonial occupier’, the British Army. Given the initial welcome afforded to the Army, the tiny IRA might have floundered in either task, had it not been for a fortuitous combination of events. The Orange Order’s marching season, beginning in April 1970, saw Catholic hostility dealt with firmly by the Army, which began to be seen as the oppressor of Catholics from then on.
A Desperate Business: Wellington, the British Army and the Waterloo Campaign by Ian Fletcher